Introduction to Private Equity
The term ‘private equity’ refers to shareholder capital invested in private companies, as distinguished from publicly listed companies. Private equity funds are generally investment vehicles that invest primarily in enterprises which are not listed on a public stock exchange.
An enterprise may seek private equity financing for a variety of applications, from increasing its working capital base in times of business expansion, developing new technologies and products to grow and remain competitive, making acquisitions of other businesses, to buying out certain shareholders and to restructure the ownership and management of the business. Another vital application of private equity in South Africa is facilitating the introduction of BEE investment.
The role of private equity
Investments by private equity funds into companies hold great benefits besides the mere cash effect to develop businesses. Private equity investments have considerable impact in terms of productivity, skills development and job creation, as it includes the transfer and exchange of know-how and not only the flow of capital. Private equity fund managers play an active role in managing their investments in companies as they derive a return from the increased value of their investments (not just debt repayment and an associated interest rate) and hence focus on business development for the companies they invest in.
In South Africa the private equity industry represents a significant sector within the overall financial services industry, and is an attractive asset class within the broader capital markets. As seen across a range of indicators, the profile of the local private equity industry is that of a productive contributor to the development of the South African economy. These contributions are detailed in The Economic Impact of Venture Capital and Private Equity in South Africa 2013 study, which is available from SAVCA. In addition private equity facilitates BEE, addresses economic imbalances of the past, promotes entrepreneurial initiatives and positions South Africa to compete successfully on the global stage.
Through the use of leverage in certain transactions, private equity sponsors can assist in improving the capital efficiency of their investee companies. Private equity is an important source of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), both indirectly via the raising of offshore money by local fund managers and also by direct co-investment by foreign investors.
Types of private equity firms A distinction needs to be made between captive and independent fund managers. Fund managers include Independents who manage funds on behalf of third parties as well as Captives who manage on-balance sheet investments that were funded by a parent or group often from an indeterminate pool of money. Captive funds are for the purpose of this survey further classified into the captive funds of Government, financial services (including banks and insurance companies) and other captive funds (including corporates).
Independent fund managers raise cash commitments from third party investors. Generally, in terms of the agreement between the third party investors and the private equity fund manager, the private equity firm draws down on the commitments as and when investments are to be made. Independents are the dominant type of firm in the UK, the rest of Europe and in the US, where these funds are structured as limited partnerships. Private equity firms typically act as the general partner of the limited partnership, whilst institutions and other investors become limited partners.
Unlike captive funds, independent funds are usually closed ended. This means that once a fund has been raised, it is closed out, following which no further commitments are accepted from third parties. Typically, third parties’ commitments expire, often according to a time schedule based on a ‘use it or lose it’ principle, once a maximum drawdown time period expires. Professional private equity managers usually earn income from a combination of a management fee based on total commitments plus a carried interest, which is based on the performance of the fund relative to a benchmark. Captive fund managers usually do not charge any management fee.
About David Okwara
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